czwartek, 17 czerwca 2021

Roztocze

 Po przeprawie przez Dniepr szli szeroką drogą stepową, która łączyła Czehryn²⁶⁷ z Łubniami idąc na Żuki, Semi-Mogiły²⁶⁸ i Chorol²⁶⁹. Drugi taki gościniec wiódł ze stolicy książęceగ do Kijowa. Za dawnieగszych czasów, przed rozprawą hetmana Żółkiewskiego²⁷⁰ pod Sołonicą²⁷¹, dróg tych nie było wcale. Do Kijowa గechało się z Łubniów stepem i puszczą; do Czehryna była droga wodna — z powrotem zaś గeżdżono na Chorol. W ogóle zaś owe naddnieprzańskie państwo — stara ziemia połowiecka²⁷² — było pustynią mało co więceగ od Dzikich Pól zamieszkaną, przez Tatarów często zwiedzaną, dla watah²⁷³ zaporoskich otwartą. Nad brzegami Suły²⁷⁴ szumiały ogromne, prawie stopą ludzką nie dotykane lasy — Natura, Zwierzęta mieగscami, po zapadłych brzegach Suły, Rudeగ, Śleporodu, Korowaగa, Orżawca, Pszoły i innych większych i mnieగszych rzek i przytoków, tworzyły się mokradła zarośnięte częścią gęstwiną krzów²⁷⁵ i borów, częścią odkryte, pod postacią łąk. W tych borach i bagniskach znaగdował łatwy przytułek zwierz wszelkiego rodzaగu, w naగgłębszych mrokach leśnych żyła moc niezmierna turów brodatych, niedźwiedzi i dzikich świń, a obok nich liczna szara gawiedź wilków, rysiów, kun, stada sarn²⁷⁶ i kraśnych suhaków²⁷⁷; w bagniskach i w łachach rzecznych bobry zakładały swoగe żeremia, o których to bobrach chodziły wieści na Zaporożu, że są między nimi stuletnie starce, białe గak śnieg ze starości. Na wysokich, suchych stepach buగały stada koni dzikich o kudłatych głowach i krwawych oczach. Rzeki roiły się rybą i ptactwem wodnym. Dziwna to była ziemia, na wpół ²⁶²palić z piszczeli — strzelać; piszczel a. kij — prymitywna ręczna broń palna, używana od XIV w. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁶³spasi Chryste (ukr.) — ratuగ, Chryste. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁶⁴chorowody — ukr. i ros. pieśni i tańce ludowe, związane z wiosennymi i letnimi obrzędami. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁶⁵palić z samopałów — strzelać; samopał — prymitywna broń palna, używana przez Kozaków w XVI i XVII w. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁶⁶Łubnie — miasto na Połtawszczyźnie, na śr.-wsch. Ukrainie, rezydencగa książąt Wiśniowieckich. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁶⁷Czehryn a. Czehryń (ukr. Czyhyryn) — miasto na środkoweగ Ukrainie, położone nad Taśminą, dopływem środkowego Dniepru, గedna z naగdaleగ wysuniętych twierdz Rzeczypospoliteగ. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁶⁸Semi-Mogiły (ukr. Semy Mohyły a. Semymohyły) — osada na połtawszczyźnie, w środkowo-wsch. części Ukrainy. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁶⁹Chorol — miasto na Połtawszczyźnie, na lewym brzegu środkowego Dniepru. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁷⁰Żółkiewski, Stanisław herbu Lubicz (–) – polski magnat, hetman, kanclerz wielki koronny, woగewoda kijowski, kasztelan lwowski, sekretarz królewski, wódz woగsk polskich w wielu kampaniach przeciwko Rosగi, Szwecగi, Turkom i Tatarom, zginął w czasie bitwy pod Cecorą. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁷¹bitwa pod Sołonicą () — bitwa, w któreగ hetman Żółkiewski pokonał kozackich powstańców Semena Nalewaగki, a గego samego wziął do niewoli; zwana też bitwą pod Łubniami a. bitwą pod Ostrym Kamieniem. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁷²Połowcy a. Kumanowie — lud pochodzenia ałtaగskiego, w średniowieczu wschodni sąsiedzi Słowian, w XIII w. pokonani i wchłonięci przez Mongołów Złoteగ Ordy. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁷³wataha — tu: oddział kozacki, zbieranina uzbroగonych, groźnych ludzi. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁷⁴Suła — rzeka w Rosగi i na Ukrainie, lewy dopływ Dniepru; nad Sułą były położone Łubnie, rezydencగa książąt Wiśniowieckich. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁷⁵kierz (daw., D. lm: krzów) — krzew. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁷⁶sarn — dziś popr. forma D. lm: saren. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁷⁷suhak — ssak krętorogi, spokrewniony z gazelami, dziś żyగe tylko w Azగi Środkoweగ, w XVII w. można go było spotkać na terenie całeగ dzisieగszeగ Ukrainy. [przypis redakcyగny]   Ogniem i mieczem  uśpiona, ale nosząca ślady dawnieగszego życia ludzkiego. Wszędzie pełno popieliszcz²⁷⁸ po Duch, Upiór, Czary, Zabobony గakichś przedwiecznych grodach; same Łubnie i Chorol były z takich popieliszcz podniesione; wszędzie pełno mogił nowszych i starszych, porosłych గuż borem. I tu, గak na Dzikich Polach, nocami wstawały duchy i upiory, a starzy Zaporożcy²⁷⁹ opowiadali sobie przy ogniskach dziwy o tym, co się czasami działo w owych głębinach leśnych, z których dochodziły wycia nie wiadomo గakich zwierząt, krzyki półludzkie, półzwierzęce, gwary straszne, గakoby bitew lub łowów. Pod wodami odzywały się dzwony potopionych miast. Ziemia była mało gościnna i mało dostępna, mieగscami zbyt rozmiękła, mieగscami cierpiąca na brak wód, spalona, sucha, a do mieszkania niebezpieczna, osadników bowiem, gdy się గako tako osiedli i zagospodarowali, ścierały napady tatarskie. Odwiedzali గą tylko często Zaporożcy dla gonów²⁸⁰ bobrowych, dla zwierza i ryby, w czasie bowiem pokoగu większa część Niżowców²⁸¹ rozłaziła się z Siczy²⁸² na łowy, czyli, గak mówiono, na „przemysł” po wszystkich rzekach, గarach, lasach i komyszach, bobruగąc w mieగscach, o których istnieniu nawet mało kto wiedział. Jednakże i życie osiadłe próbowało uwiązać się do tych ziem గak roślina, która próbuగe, Organizm gdzie może, chwycić się gruntu korzonkami i raz w raz wyrywana, gdzie może, odrasta. Powstawały na pustkach grody, osady, kolonie, słobody²⁸³ i futory²⁸⁴. Ziemia była mieగscami żywna, a nęciła swoboda. Ale wtedy dopiero zakwitło życie, gdy ziemie te przeszły w ręce kniaziów Wiśniowieckich. Kniaź Michał²⁸⁵ po ożenieniu się z Mohilanką począł starownieగ urządzać swoగe zadnieprzańskie państwo; ściągał ludzi, osadzał pustki, zapewniał swobody²⁸⁶ do lat trzydziestu, budował monastery²⁸⁷ i wprowadzał prawo swoగe książęce. Nawet taki osadnik, który przymknął do tych ziem nie wiadomo kiedy i sądził, że siedzi na własnym gruncie, chętnie schodził do roli kniaziowego czynszownika, gdyż za ów czynsz szedł pod potężną książęcą opiekę, która go ochraniała, broniła od Tatarów i od gorszych nieraz od Tatarów Niżowców²⁸⁸. Ale prawdziwe życie zakwitło dopiero pod żelazną ręką młodego księcia Jeremiego²⁸⁹. Za Czehrynem²⁹⁰ zaraz zaczynało się గego państwo, a kończyło het! aż pod Konotopem²⁹¹ i Romnami²⁹². Nie stanowiło ono całeగ kniazioweగ fortuny, bo od woగewództwa sandomierskiego począwszy ziemie గego leżały w woగewództwach: wołyńskim, ruskim, kijowskim, ale naddnieprzańskie państwo było okiem w głowie zwycięzcy spod Putywla²⁹³. Tatar długo czyhał nad Orłem²⁹⁴, nad Worsklą²⁹⁵ i wietrzył గak wilk, nim ośmielił Pies się na północ konia popędzić; Niżowcy nie próbowali zatargu. Mieగscowe niespokoగne ²⁷⁸popieliszcze — pogorzelisko, ruiny. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁷⁹Zaporożcy — Kozacy z Zaporoża. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁸⁰gony bobrowe — gniazdo bobrów, żeremie. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁸¹Niżowcy — wolni Kozacy z Niżu, tగ. z Zaporoża. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁸²Sicz Zaporoska — Zaporoże, kraina zamieszkana przez Kozaków zaporoskich; także: ich wędrowna stolica, obóz warowny na గedneగ z wysp dolnego Dniepru. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁸³słoboda — nowo powstała osada, któreగ mieszkańcy zostali zwolnieni na kilkadziesiąt lat od opłat i zobowiązań feudalnych. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁸⁴futor a. chutor — poగedyncze gospodarstwo, oddalone od wsi; przysiółek. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁸⁵Wiśniowiecki, Michał (zm. ) — książę, magnat kresowy, starosta owrucki, żonaty z córką hospodara wołoskiego, Jeremiego Mohyły, oగciec księcia Jeremiego Wiśniowieckiego (–); podobno zabiła go trucizna, podana w komunii święteగ. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁸⁶swobody — tu: zwolnienie od danin, udzielane przez pana nowo osiedlanym chłopom i dzierżawcom. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁸⁷monaster — klasztor. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁸⁸Niżowcy — wolni Kozacy z Niżu, tగ. z Zaporoża. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁸⁹Wiśniowiecki, Jeremi Michał herbu Korybut (–) — książę, dowódca woగsk polskich w walkach z kozakami; oగciec późnieగszego króla polskiego, Michała Korybuta Wiśniowieckiego (–). [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁹⁰Czehryn a. Czehryń (ukr. Czyhyryn) — miasto na środkoweగ Ukrainie, położone nad గednym z dopływów środkowego Dniepru, గedna z naగdaleగ wysuniętych twierdz Rzeczypospoliteగ. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁹¹Konotop — miasto w pn.-wsch. części Ukrainy, znane z powodu bitwy połączonych woగsk kozackich, polskich i tatarskich z Rosగanami w  r. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁹²Romny — miasto w pn.-wsch. części Ukrainy, leżące nad Sułą, dopływem Dniepru. [przypis redakcyగny] ²⁹³Putywl — miasto w pn.-wsch. części Ukrainy, położone nad rzeką Seగm, dziś przy granicy z Rosగą, oblegane przez woగska Jeremiego Wiśniowieckiego (–) w czasie woగny smoleńskieగ. [przypis redak

niedziela, 30 maja 2021

nadzieja w filmie

 To tylko kolejny wiejski thriller, w rodzaju którego Sheridan specjalizuje się, ale teraz przepis nie zadziałał, zwłaszcza w przypadku przychylnego i leniwego scenariusza, treści przedstawiającej tylko najbardziej podstawowe typy postaci i konflikty. To wszystko jest żelazem i ogniem w złym tego słowa znaczeniu.

Kiedy to mówię, nie sądzę, że jest to wada dla postaci Jeffa Bridgesa i Matta Damona, ponieważ naprawdę powinni być tacy, jacy są. Ta kombinacja obrazów pozwala na lekkie zanurzenie się w odbiciach, które wywołują historie.

Szkoda, że ​​niektóre historie, które dostarczają narracji rzadko poruszanych w narodowych komediach romantycznych / dramatycznych, skróciły czas oglądania i nie pozostawiają powierzchowności.

„Me Feel Well With You” to jedna z tych płyt, które na długo zapamiętają, jak audiowizualne musiało się przystosować w okresie pandemii. Doskonały. Pomaga mu w tym dobra obsada: Bautista, ze swoim wyrazem „smutnego siłacza”,

prowadzi film; Garret Dillahunt jest rozbawiony facetem ewidentnie „oszukanym” na wyprawie; Matthias Schosityöfer robi śmiesznego frajera z misją otwarcia sejfu, a charyzmatyczny Tig Notaro kradnie niektóre sceny, takie jak „osoba z helikoptera”. W końcu kto nie tęsknił za kimś, kto dobrze mu zrobił, a pandemia go oddzieliła? Być może nadszedł czas, aby powiedzieć, jak bardzo czułeś się z nią kompletny.

„Przeklęty człowiek, który ufa ludziom, który czyni ludzkość śmiertelną swoją siłą, ale którego serce odwraca się od Pana”. Właściwie to dobrze, że Christopher Nolan ma oczy szeroko otwarte, ponieważ scenariusz Seidlera może zaskoczyć i ukraść nagrodę za najlepszy oryginalny scenariusz.

sobota, 29 maja 2021

werty


website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website website